No recognition of same-sex couples. Despite their relative independence, few organizations recognize same-sex partnerships without condition. Retrieved 25 June Same-sex sexual activity illegal only for males. The Associated Press warns that the construct gay marriage can imply that the marriages of same-sex couples are somehow different from the marriages of opposite-sex couples. Of the three Crown dependenciessame-sex marriage has been legal in the Isle of Man since 22 July and in Guernsey and Alderney since 2 May and 14 Junerespectively. Ina pair of economists at Emory University tied the passage of state bans on same-sex marriage in the United States to an increase in the rates of HIV infection.
Archived from the original on
Retrieved 18 June University of Toronto Press. Archived from the original on March 15, Making Choices in a Diverse Society. Ray Boyer Estonian Human Rights Center.
Public Religion Research Institute. Recognition of same-sex unions in Venezuela. The cities of BolognaNaples and Fano began recognizing same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions in July  followed by EmpoliPordenoneUdine and Trieste in September,    and FlorencePiombinoMilan and Rome in October,   and by Bagheria in November. Sincesame-sex couples have been allowed to enter into civil partnershipsa separate union providing the legal consequences of marriage. History of same-sex unionsTimeline of same-sex marriageand History of homosexuality.